Modern butterfly valves are used as cut-off and regulating fittings frequently in many high-temperature applications. One of the serious challenges in this type of applications is the internal sealing of the disc. On one hand the seal should remain flexible, on the other should also be resistant to erosion and wear resulting from the conditions of its use.
Often the basic soft sealing materials (elastomers, PTFE) do not fulfil these requirements due to: -their fast ageing in the increased temperature, -their wear decreasing the life of the seal and the periods between maintenance. This led to the development of metal and metal-graphite offset seals which from one hand secure resistance to erosion and working temperature and in the same time guarantee longer life time of entire valve.
The most popular form of these seals is a graphite-metal laminated structure made of alternately combined layers of foil made of expanded graphite (characterized by specified quality, thickness and density) and inter-layers made of flat metal elements. The geometry of the seal and its material characteristics are determined in detail by the manufacturer of the fittings. This way, the specified leakage rate, durability, drive and structure of the valve is determining the selection of:
- the number of metal layers (in general, the layers may vary in terms of thickness – their number is usually between 2 and 12mm and their thickness is usually between 0.5 and 3.00 mm). The most common materials that can be applied have been presented in table 1.
- the number and the thickness of the graphite layers (also in this case the layers may vary in thickness – their thickness is usually between 0.25 and 1.00 mm, while their density is between 0.7 and 1.3 g/ccm). Graphite foils that can be applied have been provided in table 2.
Above laminates may be:
- ‘disc mounted’ if installed on the disk of butterfly valve,
- ‘body mounted’ if installed in the body of the butterfly valve.
Depending on the case, the offset conical sealing surface is given either on the external surface (in case of ‘disc mounted’) or internal surface of the laminate (in case of ‘body mounted’). As the complementary products, SPETECH® can also supply corresponding solid offset parts:
- offset solid metal ring to be mounted in the disc and work together with offset laminate seat,
- offset solid metal seat to be mounted in the body and work together with offset laminate seal.
Standard sealing rings are capable of moving within the housing laterally, which facilitates their positioning in relation to the opposite sealing surface. Such solution, however, requires the application of secondary sealing which enables such movements. For this purpose other styles of customized SPETECH® back-up seals are available such as: spiral wounds, die-pressed graphite rings, self-energized seals, etc.
In terms of the kinematics of the butterfly valve disc movement, double-eccentric SPETORING®RD-E and triple-eccentric SPETORING ®RT-E seals may be distinguished. This structural characteristic has a significant impact on the geometry of the sealing surface (see fig. 1). The purpose of the multi-eccentric valve structures is to minimize the friction in the area of sealing while closing and opening the butterfly valve.
This is especially important issue for seals containing metal inside, due to the low flexibility of these seals (in compare to rubber based materials) and the real risk of wear due to grinding.
Irrespective of whether the butterfly valve is double- or triple-eccentric, the sealing surface may assume different contours, especially round or elliptical (see fig. 1).
The selection of the outline results either from the technological optimization or the optimization of flow decided by valve designer. Therefore offset seals are always made according to a precise documentation of the manufacturer of the butterfly valve.
The range of dimensions of the internal metal laminate seals for butterfly valves is as follows:
-double eccentric seals: Spetoring RD-E DN50 - DN3000 ( NPS 2” - NPS 120” )
-triple eccentric seals: Spetoring RT-E DN50 - DN2000 ( NPS 2” - NPS 78” ).
Alternatively to RD-E and RT-E seals presented above, inside butterfly valves another solution may be installed. An optional solution available both for 2-offset and 3-offset valves is especially shaped elastic metal ring called SPETORING® RL-S. Shape of the SPETORING® RL-S can be given either by spinning or by machining. Springiness, mechanical strengths and other features may be modified by specific construction, shape and wide choice from many available materials. SPETORING® RL-S is normally installed in the body of the valve and (what is different from sandwich construction of RD-E and RT-E rings) RL-S seal is resistant to any potential erosion due to lack of any soft material inside. But in the same moment (and in some of construction options), the RL-S seal is performing with much higher elasticity and self-energizing effect. Such features make
the this solution very useful to work in high / frequently changing pressure and temperature.
Details of this SPETORING® RL-S (construction / geometry / material used) always are settled in co-operation between SPETECH® and valve manufacturer. Such solution we deliver for valves with size up DN3000 (or 120” adequately).
|Common name||Werkstoff No.||UNS||EN|
|Stainless Steel 304||1.4301||S30400||X5CrNi18-10|
|Stainless Steel 304L||1.4307||S30403||X2CrNi19-11|
|Stainless Steel 316||1.4401||S31600||X5CrNiMo17-12-2|
|Stainless Steel 316L UG (Urea Grade)||1.4435||S31603||X2CrNiMo18-14-3|
|Stainless Steel 317L||1.4438||S31703||X2CrNiMo18-14-4|
|Stainless Steel 904L||1.4439||N08904||X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5|
|Stainless Steel 321||1.4541||S32100||X6CrNiTi18-10|
|Stainless Steel 347||1.4550||S34700||X6CrNiNb18-10|
|Stainless Steel 316Ti||1.4571||S31635||X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2|
|Heat Resistant Statinles Steel 309||1.4828||S30900||X15CrNiSi20-12|
|Incoloy 800 (800H)||1.4876||N08800||X10NiCrAlTi32-20|
|Duplex - type stainless steel|
|Duplex Steel F51 (2205) 318 LN||1.4462||S32205/S31803||X2CrNiMoN22-5-3|
|Duplex Steel F53 (2507)||1.4410||S32750||X2CrNiMoN25-7-4|
|Duplex Steel F55 (4501)||1.4501||S32760||X2CrNiMoCuWN25-7-4|
|Duplex Steel 310Mo LN||1.4466||S31050||X2CrNiMoN25-2-2|
|Nickel 201||2.4068||N02201||Lc-Ni 99|
|Monel 400||2.4360||N04400||NiCu 30 Fe|
|Inconel 600||2.4816||N06600||NiCr 15 Fe|
|Type of soft material||Carbon content||Chloride content||Sulphur content||Additives|
|Expanded graphite Sigraflex C (standard purity)||≥98||≤25||<300||---|
|Expanded graphite Sigraflex Z (nuclear purity)||≥99,85||≤10||<300||---|
|Expanded graphite Sigraflex ZX||≥98||≤20||<300||Corrosion
|Expanded graphite Sigraflex APX||≥98||≤25||<300||Oxidation
|Expanded graphite Sigraflex APX2||≥98||≤25||<300||Improved